A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRELAND:

 7000BC-6500BC  Human Habitation began.

            3000BC  The Megalithic tombs are constructed,at Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth in County Meath.

              700BC  The Celts arrive in Ireland from parts of France and Scotland.
 
              680BC  The famous Emain Macha enclosure was built.(near Armagh City).

        1AD-500AD  Ireland was covered with crannogs, hill-forts and raths.

        77AD-84AD  The Romans considered invading Ireland, but was finally rejected by Agricola (40 - 93).

               200AD  Conn of the hundred battles established his high-kingship at Tara. Co. Meath.
     
         300-450AD  Irish raids were made on Roman ruled Britain.

               350AD  Christianity reaches Ireland.

               432      St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and confronts King Laoghaire who allows him to spread the word of Christianity in Ireland.

       c.500-600     Establishment of monasticism as the characteristic feature of the Celtic Church.

                563     Columcille establishes a monastery on Iona.

                575     Convention at Druim Ceat.

                590     Columbanus begins his mission to France.

                664     Synod of Whitby finds against the Celtic Church.

          700-800     Monastic culture is at its height. Ireland is known as the “Island of Saints and Scholars”

                795     Invasion by the Vikings.

                840     Dublin Established as permanent Scandinavian colony.

               1014     Brian Boru (King of Ireland) defeats the Vikings at Clontarf County Dublin.(Sadly Brian himself was killed in this battle)

       1132-1148     Reform of the Irish Church by St. Malachy.

               1169     Dermot MacMurrough, the exiled king of Leinster, seeks help from 'Strongbow'. The first invasion by the Anglo-Normans begins.

               1172     King Henry II of England is declared Feudal Lord of Ireland by Pope Adrian IV.
         
               1315     Invasion of Edward Bruce.

               1366     Statues of Kilkenny forbid any intermarriage of English and Irish. The Gaelic culture was unsuccessfully suppressed.

               1395     Submission of all but northern chiefs to Richard 11.

       1478-1513     The rule of Garret Mor Fitzgerald.

       1534-1540     Insurrection by Lord Offaly (Silken Thomas Fitzgerald) fails.

               1541     Henry VIII proclaimed King of Ireland.

       1557-1558     Plantation of Ireland commences under the reign of Elizabeth I. Kings and Queens county are established in Offaly and Laois.
       
               1586     Plantation of Munster.

       1593-1603     Nine years of war between Hugh O'Neill and his allies and the English forces.

               1601     O'Neills defeat at Kinsale.

               1607     Flight of the Earls (Hugh O'Neill and Hugh O' Donnell) and leading Ulster families go into exile.

       1608-1610     Plantation of Ulster.

               1641     King Charles I's policies causes a native Irish rebellion and Civil War in England.

               1642     Owen Roe O'Neill takes command of the forces of the Irish chiefs.

               1646     Victory for Owen Roe and his forces at Benburb.

               1649     Cromwell invades Ireland. Owen Roe is killed. A Cromwellian massacre tales place in Drogheda and Wexford.

               1653     Cromwell's opponents stripped of land under the Act of Settlement.

               1660     Restoration of Charles 11.

               1681     Execution of St. Oliver Plunkett.

               1687     Tyrconnell made lord deputy by James 11.
        
               1689     Relief of the beseiged anti-Jacobites in Derry.

       1689-1690     Deposed James II flees to Ireland and is defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.

               1691     The Treaty of Limerick signed.

               1695     Penal laws against Catholics.

               1704     Further Penal Laws enacted (Queen Anne's reign): Catholics are barred from voting, education and the military.

               1775     American War of Independence instigates Irish unrest.

               1778     Formation of the Irish Volunteers.

               1782     Dungannon Convention of the Volunteers proclaim legislative independence. 
                          Grattan's Parliament persuades English to declare Irish independence, but in name only.

               1791     Foundation of United Irishmen in Belfast.

               1795     "Battle of the Diamond" at Loughgall, Co. Armagh. The Orange Order is founded.

               1798     Uprising by Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen in Antrim, Down, Wexford and Mayo is crushed.

               1801     Ireland becomes part of Britain under the Act of Union.

               1829     Catholic Emancipation Act passed after Daniel O'Connell elected as M.P.

       1831-1838     The Tithe War; all tillage farmers were expected to pay a tax of 10% to the local ministers.
 
               1842     Charles Gavin Duffy, co-founder with Thomas Davis of the Young Ireland Movement becomes editor of the "Nation".

       1845-1849     The Great Famine caused by potato blight; claims over 1 million lives through starvation and disease. Emigration over the                            next 10 years results in departure of a further 1 million people.

               1867     Unsuccessful Fenian rising.

               1869     Gladstone dis-establishes the Church of Ireland.

               1879     Michael Davitt founds the Land League.

       1879-1882     The Land War is instigated by Parnell who encourages the boycott of repressive landlords. The 3 'F's are  gained  for the                            tenants: Fixity of Tenure, Fair Rent, Freedom to sell their holding.

               1890     Fall of Charles Stuart Parnell and serious schism in the Irish Party.

               1892     Gladstones Second Home Rule Bill defeated.

               1893     Foundation of the Gaelic League.

               1910     Carson becomes leader of Irish Unionists.

               1912     Solemn League and Covenant against Home Rule signed by 218,000 Protestants.

               1913     Foundation of the Irish Citizen Army, UVF and in response to this the Irish Volunteers.

               1914     The Implementation of Home Rule is postponed because of the outbreak of World War I.

               1916     The Easter Rising is led by Pearse, Connolly, Clarke, Mac Donagh, Plunkett, Ceannt and Mac Dermott. The leaders are executed                            which shifts public opinion in favour of the rebels. Unionists agree to a partitioned Ulster.

        1920-1921    The War of Independence takes place between Britain and Ireland. The Irish Free State is created (excluding the 6 Northern                           Counties).              

        1922-1923    Civil war breaks out between the Free State Army and the Irregulars (the IRA).

                1926    Fianna Fail party formed and led by DeValera.

                1932    DeValera elected Taoiseach of Ireland.

        1939-1945    Ireland (Eire) remains neutral during WW2, despite the offer of a United Ireland, having been made to DeVelera if Ireland enters                           the war on behalf of the Allies.

                1948    Ireland declared a Republic by Taoiseach Costello. Northern Ireland is declared a separate entity.

                1969    Rioting between Catholics and Protestants. Civil Rights marches. British troops called in to keep order.

                1970    Start of Provisional IRA's campaign, it lasted until 1998.

                1971    Provisional IRA begins campaign to oust British troops from Ireland.

                1972    "Bloody Sunday" in Derry, fourteen anti-Internment demonstrators killed by British paratroopers.

                1972    Republic of Ireland joins the European Community.

                1981    Ten hunger strikers die in their campaign for "special status".

                1985    Anglo-Irish Agreement signed.

                1988    Talks between John Hume of the SDLP and Gerry Adams of Sinn Fein take place.

                1994    Peace Declaration and IRA ceasefire.

                1998    'Good Friday' agreement reached, promising the creation of a Northern Assembly.


 

.::dezynamite print & web::.